Because I'm frequently annoyed by internet disconnects, a few years back I wrote a F# console app that would send an ICMP ping to selected targets every 500ms. Recently, I decided to modernize it to .NET Core, Dockerize it, and run it on a Linux box. I mostly did my development in WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux). I encountered some very odd issues and I'll describe what happened.
Running the console app locally in Windows had been fine and remained without any issues at all. However, when I attempted to run my app in WSL 2 via Docker, I quickly ran into an issue. Even when pings were being sent without any timeouts at all in Windows, running it in Linux would after ~2-3s result in over half the pings returning a timeout. This behavior made it so that the app was effectively useless in Linux. I suspect there was some rate limit that started to block my app after a few seconds due to the relatively rapid pings. There was some odd bug in Linux.
My first guess as to the reason behind this bug was that WSL was simply not quite the same as an actual Linux machine and maybe pinging just didn't work perfectly. I've encountered WSL behaving weirdly before, so it's not that unexpected. To test this, I used a VM in DigitalOcean to run my app. No issue at all!
So, it wasn't an issue with all Linux systems. Just with my Linux system. My
next step was to use a non-.NET based ping utility and try my luck. Using the
standard ping tool, I ran
ping google.com -i 0.05 on my WSL instance.
The result was 0 timeouts. The behavior was completely different from my .NET based ping utility. Okay, so now I know that some ping implementations would work in WSL, just not the .NET one. The next step was to figure out why only approximately 50% of the pings in my .NET utility returned timeouts in WSL. I started reading the source code of the .NET implementation of SendPingAsync. I saw that it set up raw sockets for each ICMP ping it sent. Because of this, I thought that perhaps there was buildup in sockets in WSL. As far as I could tell with things like lsof there was nothing weird happening. So, I set up strace and looked around for system calls where sockets were being used. I spent a few hours doing this, but... honestly there didn't appear to be any system call differences between ping attempts that worked and ping attempts that failed. It seemed like randomly half of the calls would simply fail for no discernible reason.
Since the app worked fine on DigitalOcean's Linux VM, I was fairly confident that it was some WSL issue. So, I set up a local Linux box and hope it would work. Sadly, the local Linux box (non-VM) also experienced the same issue with the same behavior. I guess it wasn't WSL after all.
I was pretty stumped. I started poking around my router settings for unrelated reasons and stumbled upon a security log. In there, I discovered the following logs (slightly modified).
1 Jan 22 04:06:02 kern alert attack kernel: PING OF DEATH ATTACK:SRC=192.0.2.0 DST=220.127.116.11 LEN=60 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=62 ID=41216 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=64839 SEQ=0 2 Jan 22 04:06:01 kern alert attack kernel: PING OF DEATH ATTACK:SRC=192.0.2.0 DST=18.104.22.168 LEN=60 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=62 ID=41215 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=64837 SEQ=0 3 Jan 22 04:06:01 kern alert attack kernel: PING OF DEATH ATTACK:SRC=192.0.2.0 DST=22.214.171.124 LEN=60 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=62 ID=41214 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=64835 SEQ=0
Oh! My own router was blocking my pings because it thought I was an attacker. But why would it only block pings on Linux and only pings in the .NET implementation? .NET on Windows worked completely fine and the standard ping utility in Linux worked fine too. This was very confusing, but I finally felt like I had a lead on something.
I downloaded Wireshark and started listening to my network interface, filtering for ICMP pings. While doing that I also ran my .NET app on Windows and looked at all the parameters. Then, I did the same in Linux and in Linux with the ping utility.
It turns out the main difference is in how the ID and Sequence Number are used by the various implementations. Those two properties are used in the following way according to the spec:
Identifier If code = 0, an identifier to aid in matching echos and replies, may be zero. Sequence Number If code = 0, a sequence number to aid in matching echos and replies, may be zero.
It seems that should be able to be used in the same way. Here's a table showing how the various ping implementations differ in their usage of ID and Sequence Number.
|Linux ping CLI||Constant||Incrementing|
|Windows ICMP system call||Constant||Incrementing|
|.NET SendPingAsync in Linux||Incrementing||Constant|
At this point, I downloaded the go-ping library, modified it to control the incrementing myself to test what happens with my router. I discovered that an incrementing identifier was what would cause my router to think it is a Ping of Death attack.
I now wanted to know why .NET chose to implement ping in this way that differed in behavior from these other pingers. Digging into github, the reason for this divergence appears to be to mimic Mono's implementation of SendPingAsync (See discussion here and the relevant source code parts.) I'm not sure why Mono was implemented in this manner, but I guess that's what caused all this pain.
Armed with this knowledge, I realized making my own manual ping implementation was likely too painful in .NET as I'd have to use unsafe code. I ported my app entirely to golang and called it a day. I learned about raw sockets and how to use strace and wireshark, but I do wish I could have been spared this pain. I suppose that's the price of learning.
Any error corrections or comments can be made by sending me a pull request.